Flowers have always been included in kitchen gardens because their flowers attract beneficial insects necessary to pollinate and protect vegetable plants. Some have culinary and household uses, while others are simply to be appreciated for their beauty. In the changing world of seed breeding and climates, we are now seeing annuals that overwinter and perennials that bloom fi rst year (acting like an annual). Both annuals and perennials are being selected for use in garden beds and planters. We have combined the two sections to reflect these changes and hope that you will experiment freely with incorporating all flowers into your garden. Note about starting indoors: always use fresh sterilized seeding medium and clean trays, plugs, and pots for good results. When "room temperature" is indicated, the temperature range is 18-21C/68-71F. Temperatures above or below will affect the speed and rate of germination. If light is needed to help germination, a strong light source from full spectrum bulbs is recommended. Perennials are noted by their hardiness zones. All perennials bloom first year, unless indicated in the description. Some annuals have been known to overwinter in our trials; these are indicated by "tender perennial".